Posted by: Kang Huda | May 28, 2008

Acid Bases Concentration

This page provides info on how to dilute and prepare 1 molar (1M) solutions of acids, bases, and ammonia.

Concentrated Acids

Acids

Molarity

Percent

S.G.

1M Dilute Acid

Acetic acid
MW=60.05

17.4M

99%

1.05

58 mls per liter.

HCl
MW=36.46

11.6M

36%

1.18

Use 86 mls per liter.

Nitric acid
MW=63.01

16.4M

69%

1.42

61 mls per liter.

H2SO4
MW=98.07

17.6M
36N

95%

1.84

56 mls per liter.
(28 mls = 1N)

Ammonia soln
MW=35.05

14.5M
15N

28%

0.88

Use 71 mls per liter.

Hydrobromic acid
MW=80.92

9 M

48%

1.49

111 mls per liter.

Hydrofluoric acid
MW=20.01

27M

48%

1.29

37 mls per liter

Hydriodic acid
MW=127.91

7M

57%

1.70

143 mls per liter.

Perchloric acid
MW=100.46

11.7M
9.5M

70%
61%

1.71
1.66

85.5mls per liter.
106 mls per liter.

Phosphoric acid
MW=97.99

45N
15M

88%

1.69

(22.5 mls = 1N)
68 mls per liter.

Dilute Acids

Acetic Acid
Dilute 116 mls.of the concentrated acid to 1 litre of water. (2M)
Hydrochloric Acid
Dilute 172 mls. of the concentrated acid to 1 litre with water.(2M)
Nitric Acid
Dilute 122mls. of the concentrated acid to 1 liter with water. (2M)
Sulphuric Acid
Pour 56 mls.of the concentrated acid slowly and with constant stirring into about 500mls. of water, cool, and dilute to 1 litre. (1M)
Sulphurous Acid
Prepare a saturated solution of SO2 gas in water. (6-7%) by weght.

Dilute Bases

Ammonia solution conc.
The commercial product, S.G. 0.88 contains about 28% NH3. (15M)
Ammonia solution dilute
Dilute 335 ml of the commercial solution to 1 liter (5N)
Barium hydroxide
Shake 70 gms. of crystalised salt in 1 liter of water. Filter or siphon off the liquid , and protect from CO2 of the air. Use a CaCl2 Guard tube. (0.2M)
Calcium hydroxide (Lime water)
Shake 2-3 gms. of calcium hydroxide with 1 liter of water. Filter or siphon off liquid, and protect from CO2 of the air. Use a CaCl2 Guard tube. (0.02M)
Potassium hydroxide
Dissolve 112 gms. of KOH pellets in water , and dilute to 1 liter. (2M)
Sodium hydroxide
Dissolve 200 gm pellets in water and dilute to 1 liter. (5M)


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